commercial correspondence - Ietters, faxes, and emails. The characteristic features of each are illustrated with examples, and guidance is. A. Ashley - Oxford Handbook of Commercial nanofusmortsubc.tk Tira Nur Fitria. lntroduction pdqe 5 n 1 Letters,faxes,and emails 7 o 2 = Contentand style 2s f+. OXFORD HANDBOOK OF. Commercial. Correspondence. nanofusmortsubc.tk Oxford universitypress need to write commercial correspondence in. English as part of .
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Enclosed you will find our official order No. Please find enclosed Discounts Confirmthe agreed discounts. Delivery Confirmthe delivery dates. Nevertheless, to ensure prompt and safe delivery, it is a good idea to advise the company on how you want the goods packed and sent. This means that if the consignment arrives late, or in a damaged state, your letter is evidence of the instructions you gave. Note, in the first example, that crates are often marked with a sign— a diamond, a target, a square, a lion, etc.
Although an advice note can be sent by fax or email, the customer may need to present original documents e. Of course these cannot be faxed or sent by email. Y ou should contact us immediately if any problems arise. Thank you for your order, and we hope we can be of further service in the future. This can be done by letter, or by email for speed o. The following examples can be used in both emails and letters. We are now dealing with it and you may expect delivery within the next three weeks.
Order DR4 9 March Attn. Causio Dear Sig. Causio Please find enclosed our official order, No. DR4 If you do not have any of the items we have ordered currently in stock, please do not send alternatives.
We would appreciate delivery within the next six weeks, and look forward to your acknowledgement. Order No. DR4 1 On whose terms are F. DR 4 Satex S. Why do you think it is relatively small? We have all the i tems i n stock and wi ll advi se you about shi pment i n the next few days. Vi a di Pi etr a Papa, Roma Telefono: We ar e sur e you wi ll be ver y sati sfi ed wi th the consi gnment and look for war d to your next or der.
Advice of despatch o This email message confirms that Satex have sent the order. The shipping documents will then be sent to F. They have agr eed to pay by letter of cr edi t, whi ch we di scussed on the phone last week, and they would li ke deli ver y befor e the end of thi s month, whi ch should be no pr oblem as ther e ar e r egular sai li ngs fr om Li ver pool.
If the colour s they have chosen ar e not i n stock, they wi ll accept an alter nati ve pr ovi ded the desi gns ar e those sti pulated on the or der. Please send any fur ther cor r espondence r elati ng to shi pment or payment di r ect to MacKenzi e Br os, and let us have a copy of the commer ci al i nvoi ce when i t i s made up. Many thanks Li nda Lowe 3 Why should there be no problemfor Glaston Potteries to deliver within four weeks? So who must Glaston Potteries write to now? There are three parties involved: When we have the necessar y documents we wi ll tr ansfer them to Bur nley Ci ty Bank, your bank's agents her e, and they wi ll for war d them to the Canadi an Uni on Tr ust Bank.
We have taken par ti cular car e to see that the goods have been packed as per your i nstr ucti ons: Each cr ate measur es 6ft x 4ft x 3ft and wei ghs 5 cwt. We managed to get all i tems fr om stock wi th the excepti on of Cat. G16, whi ch i s only avai lable i n r ed, but we i ncluded i t i n the consi gnment as i t was of the desi gn you asked for.
If you need any fur ther i nfor mati on, please contact us. Thank you ver y much for your or der. We look for war d to hear i ng fr om you agai n soon. Please confirmreceipt and quote consignment note No. Quantity 4 8 68 4 8 72 Goods Description ERC adaptors 13 amp dimmer switches 25 0 watt 1-metre fluorescent fitting with defuser Jacar 4 -metre extension leads 3kW 3, watt point fittings 13 amp E x a m p l e a d v i c e n o t e Comments Paid on pro forma inv.
State what has happened, how it happened, and what you are doing to put things right. In these cases the speed of email is very useful. If email is not available, then fax or cable should be used as the sooner your customer is informed, the sooner they can take action. It is a good idea to keep copies of any messages you send about delays.
B had not reached you. On enquiry I found that it had been delayed by a local dispute on the cargo vessel SS Hamburg on which it had been loaded. I am now trying to get the goods transferred to the SS Samoa, which is scheduled to sail for Y okohama before the end of next week. I shall keep you informed.
This is due to a fire at our Greenford works which destroyed most of the machinery. Y our order has been transferred to our Slough factory and will be processed there as soon as possible. I apologize for this delay, which is due to circumstances beyond our control. This is due to the cut in supplies from Gara, where, as you may be aware, civil war broke out last week. We have contacted a possible supplier in Lagos and he will let us know if he can help us.
If you wish to cancel your order, please let us know as soon as possible. However, I think you will find most manufacturers are experiencing the same difficulties at present. Whatever your reason, you must be polite: Unfortunately we have run out of the strengthened denim style you asked for. As you particularly specified this material, we will not offer a substitute, but will inform you immediately we receive delivery of a new consignment. This will be within the next two months.
We are aware that other models will not suit your requirements, but hope that the dispute will be settled soon and that we will be able to supply you. We will keep you informed of developments. In these cases, it is better to indicate terms on which you would be prepared to accept the order, or, as in the last two examples below, find a diplomatic way of saying 'no'. It is extremely unlikely that we will be able to deliver within the next four months. Therefore, regretfully, we have to decline it.
Urnfav umble team The supplier may not like the terms the customer has asked for, either for delivery: However, we might consider this sort of credit once we have established a trading relationship. Size of order Bad reputation The quantity required might be too large: The quantity required might be too small: I regret that we never sell individual garments.
At that time we had expected to be able to complete the order well within the delivery date which we gave you of 18 June, but since then we have heard that our main supplier of chrome has gone bankrupt. It will be necessary to find an alternative supplier who can fulfil all the outstanding contracts we have to complete. As you will appreciate this will take some time, but we are confident that we should be able to deliver consignments to our customers by the middle of next month.
The units themselves have been assembled and only need completing. We regret this unfortunate situation over which we had no control, and apologize for the inconvenience caused. We will understand if you wish to cancel the order, but stress that we are confident that we will be able to complete delivery by the middle of next month. Please let us know your decision as soon as possible. Thank you for your consideration. Panton Managing Director Regi ster ed No.
E ngland 5 3 Tr; r t r t 10 0 1 Why have Panton Manufacturing not completed the order? Eric Van Gellen Thank you for your or der , No. HU, whi ch we r ecei ved today. Ther efor e, i n thi s i nstance, I r egr et that we have to tur n down your or der.
Email is a convenient way of acknowledging themquickly. Apologize for the inconvenience. They are not only requests for payment but also records of transactions which give the downloader and seller information about what has been bought or sold, the terms of the sale, and details of the transaction. An invoice may be accompanied by a short covering letter or email offering additional information the customer might need.
B for. D for f Lovo forma invoice: As soon as we receive your cheque we will send the goods which should then reach you within a few days. We would appreciate it i fyou could return any unsold chairs by the end of May as agreed. PL, is for your order, No. The total of f 15, includes cost, insurance, and freight. Statements of account rarely have letters with themunless there is a particular point that the supplier wants to make, e. Note the expression AS AT e. May I remind you that your June statement is still outstanding, and ask you to settle as soon as possible?
Banks usually require two of their directors' signatures on drafts, and make a small charge. The bill states that the customer will pay the supplier an amount within a stated time, e.
The bill is sent direct to the customer or paid through a bank. See pages 4 for more on bill of exchange transactions. Cheques can take three working days to clear through the commercial banks, and can be open, to pay cash, or closed crossed , to be paid into an account. The bank then transfers the money to the supplier.
They will deliver goods and accept payment on behalf of the supplier. They can either be cito s s ED, in which case the money can only be paid into the supplier's account, or left open for the supplier to cash. Methods of payment: Payments are subject to Eu directives, e. Bill of exchange The procedure is the same as that for trade in the UK, but shipping documents usually accompany bills when the bank acts as an intermediary in international transactions. In a transaction between businesses in Germany and the UK, for example, the supplier could wait up to three weeks for payment.
The money is credited to the supplier's account as soon as confirmation of shipment is made. The supplier's bank should usually have either an account or an agreement with the customer's bank. The bank fills out the order for the customer then, for a small charge, hands the Imo over, and the downloader sends it to the supplier. International Post Office Giro Payment by International Post Office Giro can be made when either the customer or supplier, or both, do not have bank accounts.
An order for the amount to be paid is filled out at a Post Office, which forwards it to the Giro Centre. The Giro Centre will send the amount to a Post Office in the supplier's country, where the supplier will receive a postal cheque. They can then either cash it, or pay it into a bank account. Giros are charged at a flat rate. In effect, a promissory note is an r ou I owe you. Advice of payment Correspondence advising payment, particularly in the UK, tends to be short and routine.
L dated 2 August. This can be paid into your account or cashed at any Post Office. Correspondence confirming payment in trade transactions outside the UK may be more complicated if you want to make specific points. Please find enclosed our draftfor drawn on Eastland City Bank, Sommerville. Could you please acknowledge receipt?
Could you confirm the transfer has been made as soon as the correspondent bank advises you? Please advise us when the goods will be shipped and are likely to reach Barcelona.
We shall collect the consignment as soon as it arrives in Bonn and pay your bill on the date agreed. Acknowledgement of payment Correspondence acknowledging payment also tends to be short. Thank you forpaying so promptly, and we hope to hearfrom you again soon.
Thank you for letting us know, and we look forward to hearing from you again in the near future. We feel sure you will be pleased with the consignment and look forward to receiving your next order. RE has been credited to our account. We would like to thank you, and would be pleased to help if you need further information, or would like to place another order.
BE and the documents have been transferred to you. We are sure you will be pleased with the consignment — The Nippon Bank in Tokushima have told us that the proceeds of your letter of credit have been credited to our account. Thank you for your custom, and we hope you will be in touch with us again.
We have pleasure in enclosing our new summer catalogue. These documents prove that a shipment has been made fromGlaston Potteries to MacKenzie Bros so that the Canadian bank can now release the money that MacKenzie Bros said they would pay in their letter of credit. There will also be additional charges that MacKenzie Bros will pay their bank for handling the transaction.
It might be helpful to refer back to enquiry, reply, order, and advice c You will see fromthe invoice that CIF charges have been deducted fromthe gross price. This is because under UK law the customer must be told exactly what they are paying for. There are also two payments which are listed here as cash, although the word cheque can also be used in this context. L L 7 Cash Di sc. Mendez owe at the beginning of the month? June statement open?
The customer, 6 Mr Crane of F. If you look back to page 5 8,you will see that Satex S. Notice how the letter begins with confirmation of payment, then states the present arrangement, and finally makes the next order subject to Mr Causio accepting the new terms.
The letter is firm, but still polite. For this kind of correspondence a letter is more appropriate than an email message. Order 14 4 63 16 June 20— Satex S. We have accepted the sight bill, and the bank should send you an advice shortly. We have been dealing with you on a cash against documents basis for over a year and would like to change to payment by 4 o-day bill of exchange, documents against acceptance. When we first contacted you last February you told us that you would be prepared to reconsider terms of payment once we had established a trading association.
We think that sufficient time has elapsed for us to be allowed the terms we have asked for. If you need references, we will be glad to supply them.
As we are planning to send another order within the month, could you please confirmthat you agree to these new terms of payment? Note that MacKenzie Bros will accept either replacements for the broken crockery or a credit note. Glaston Potteries will claimon their insurance company for the breakages, although they might not get compensation as they have been negligent in their packing. The pr oceeds wi ll be cr edi ted to you as soon as Canadi an Tr ust r ecei ve the documents.
We usually ask you to wr ap each pi ece of cr ocker y i ndi vi dually and pack no mor e than ten sets i nto a cr ate to allow for easy and safe handli ng. Thi s was not done wi th our last consi gnment and as a consequence ther e wer e br eakages see attached li st. We would li ke ei ther r eplacements to be i ncluded i n our next shi pment, or your cr edi t note.
Would an open systemlike email or fax be satisfactory, or should you send a letter? These situations can be sensitive. If you are writing to a supplier to explain why you have not cleared an account, remember that they are mainly interested in when the account will be paid.
So, while you must state why you have not paid, you must also explain when and how you intend to pay. Begin the letter with your creditor's name this should always be done once correspondence has been established, but it is essential in this case: Refer to the account and apologize in clear, objective language i.
Notice the verbs clear and settle an account are used rather than pay. Explain why you cannot clear the account, but do not be dramatic.
We are waiting for our insurance company to settle our claim so that we can renew our stock and pay our suppliers. The debt was considerable and its loss has made it difficult for us to pay our suppliers. Notice in the last example above that there is no reference to the bankrupt customer's name, nor how much they owed.
It would be unethical to give this sort of information. Also notice how the debtor generalizes the situation, explaining that other suppliers have not been paid yet. This shows a willingness to clear the debt, and will gain your creditor's confidence. If you cannot offer a part payment, give as precise a date of payment as you can. We expect this to be within the next two weeks. Replying to requests for more time There are three possible ways in which you might reply to a request froma customer for more time to settle an account: If you agree to the request, a short letter is all that is needed.
I sympathize with the problem you have had in clearing the balance and am willing to extend the credit for another six weeks. Would you please confirm that the credit will be settled then?
Therefore your account has been extended another month, but I will have to insist on payment by the end of July 86 If you refuse the request, you will need to explain, politely, why you are refusing. I appreciate your difficulty, but we ourselves have to pay our own suppliers and therefore must insist on payment within the next ten days. We look forward to receiving your remittance. YR go c, has not been cleared, we understand the problems you have been facing in the current recession.
However, it was because of the present economic climate that we allowed you a two-month period to settle, and while we would like to offer you more time to clear the balance, our own financial position makes this impossible. Therefore, we must ask you to settle the account within the next fortnight. An offer of a compromise for example paying part of the money will also need an explanation.
Unfortunately, we cannot extend the credit any longer as we allowed a considerable discount for prompt payment. We look forward to your remittance and confirmation that the balance of the account will be cleared in July — I was sorry to hear about the strike which has held up production in your plant for the past few weeks and understand why you need more time to clear your account.
Nevertheless, when we allowed open account terms, we emphasized this was on condition balances were cleared promptly on due dates as credit facilities put a strain on our own cash flow situation. We look forward to receiving your acceptance and confirmation.
There may be a number of reasons for this: Therefore, a first request should take the formof a polite enquiry. Try to make the letter impersonal. You can do this by using the definite article, e. The first example will give you an idea of this style. Please could you contact us and let us know why the balance has not been paid?
Could you please let us have a cheque to clear the amount as soon as possible? If payment has already been sent, please disregard this letter. Second request If a customer intends to pay, they usually answer a first request immediately, offering an apology for having overlooked the account, or an explanation.
But if they acknowledge your request but still do not pay, or do not answer at all, then you can make a second request. As with first requests, you should include copies 87 ea a. Enclosed you will find a copy of the statement and our letter.
Myfirst letter, dated 21 April, asked why the account had not been paid, and you will see from the enclosed that State that you have not received payment, if this was promised in the reply, or that no reply has been received. Insist that you receive payment or an answer within a certain time.
However, we must now insist that either you settle the account before the end of this month or offer a reasonable explanation for not doing so. Explain that you have been patient. We now, reluctantly, assume that you have no intention of clearing the balance. Let the customer know what you are going to do, but do not threaten legal action unless you intend to take it, as it will make you look weak and indecisive. In the two examples below legal action is not threatened.
Please send your remittance immediately. In the next two examples legal action is threatened. Notice the language used to do this.
Do not use obscure language e. We will take other steps or We will use other methods to enforce payment , and do not try to sound like a lawyer e. Unless payment is forthcoming, we will be obliged to take steps to enforce our claims. A direct, clear statement is more effective. Email vanBasten. We had intended to pay the statement as usual, but a large cash shipment to one of our customers in Australia was part of the cargo destroyed in the fire on the Tippa when she docked in Bombay in late November.
Our insurance company have promised us compensation within the next few weeks.
Once we have received this, the account will be paid in full. We feel confident that you will appreciate the situation and hope you can bear with us until the matter is settled. Yours sincerely a v- ait , Rast a ' D. Her r Schuber t accepts the r equest and asks for payment as soon as possi ble. We were sorry to hear about the difficulties you have had, and understand the situation. However, we would appreciate it if you could clear the account as soon as possible, as we ourselves have suppliers to pay.
Bishkin Z enith S. My government has put an embargo on all machine exports to Z urimba, and consequently we have found ourselves in temporary difficulties as we had three major cash consignments for that country.
However, I amat present discussing sales of these consignments with two large Brazilian importers, and amcertain that they will take the goods. I would be most grateful if you could help me in this matter.
The costs of this procedure are paid by the customer. However, the customer in this case has not said they will not pay, but cannot pay at present. If Mr Bishkin forced Mr Franksen to pay, the result might be bankruptcy, and all Mr Bishkin would get is a percentage of his customer's debts like the other creditors.
This could be as small as five per cent of the total debt. So he does not want to force the bill on Mr Franksen yet.
On the other hand, he has waited long enough for his money, and cannot be expected to wait another sixty days, even with the interest offered. In his reply to Mr Franksen he offers a compromise.
I think the following solution might help us both. But I expect you to pay the remaining 17,74 9. Please confirmyour acceptance by signing the enclosed bill and sending it to me with your draft by return of post. I hope that your negotiations with the Brazilian importers have a positive outcome and trust that this setback will soon be resolved. Yours sincerely N. RiAkikt, N. Bishkin Mr Director Enc.
It appears that this invoice has not yet been settled.
I see fromour records that since we began trading you have cleared your accounts regularly on the due dates. That is why I wondered if any problems have arisen which I might be able to help you with?
Please let me know if I can be of assistance. Yours sincerely Richard clific Richard Cliff Director 6 rn 3 r o 'CI 93 Rept, to fi r est papest You will see fromMr Hughes' reply to Mr Cliff's letter that the invoice had been paid, not by cheque, which was Mr Hughes' usual method of payment, but by credit transfer.
However, as Mr Hughes changed his method of payment, he should have informed his supplier as banks do not always advise credit transfers. This is a good example of whyyou should not assume that a customer has failed to pay an account. Remember that this type of correspondence is best handled by letter, not email or fax. As my bank statement showed the money had been debited to my account, I assumed that it had been credited to your account as well.
It is possible that your bank has not advised you yet. Could you please check this with Bamley's, and if there are any problems let me know, so that I can make enquiries here? Giordianino Omega S. Giordianino With reference to my letter of 10 August, I enclose copy invoices which made up your June statement, the balance of which still remains outstanding. Please would you either reply with an explanation or send us a cheque to clear the account within the next seven days?
Cost ello R. Costello Sr Credit Controller End. Here is Sig. Giordianino's reply to Sr Costello's letter. However, I amsurprised that you did not receive our circular letter informing all our suppliers that we were moving from Milan to Turin. I have checked our post book, and find that a letter was sent to you on June As you will see fromthe copy enclosed, we warned suppliers that there might be some delay in clearing accounts and replying to correspondence as the move would involve employing new staff who needed time to get used to our accounts and filing systems.
You will be pleased to hear that we have now settled into our new offices and will have a fully trained staff by the end of next month. Could you please note our new address for future reference? Yours sincerely giovaliamiAo D. Giordianino Sig. Accountant Enc. Bank Draft No. Giordianino done about the outstanding account, and what will he do in the near future? Our Ref: We have waited three months for either a reply to explain why the balance has not been cleared, or a remittance, but have received neither.
We are reluctant to take legal action to recover the amount, but you leave us no alternative. Unless we receive your remittance within the next ten days, we will instruct our solicitors to start proceedings. Yours sincerely J. Millai J. Millar Mrs Chief Accountant Enc. An invoice may be a.
Remember, your creditors are more interested in when they will get their money than in good excuses. The first is to write a polite letter which accepts that there may be a good reason why the account has not yet been cleared. The second is a more insistent request which refers to the letter you have already sent, and encloses copies of invoices and statements. You can, in the second request, state that you expect payment or a reply within a reasonable time. A final demand must be handled with restraint.
Review what has happened, explain the balance has been outstanding for a long period, and if necessary threaten legal action if the account is not paid within a specified period. If you have to respond to an unjustified complaint, be polite and remember that anyone can make a mistake.
Below are two examples of unjustified complaints, and the replies to them. Notice how restrained the replies are.
I have enclosed a copy of the statement and The government is fighting inflation I checked the item you referred to, the Scriva Pen, catalogue No. G14 on our price-list. Some complaints, e.
Opening Do not delay. Complain as soon as you realize a mistake has been made; delay weakens your case and can complicate the matter as details may be forgotten. There is no need to open by apologizing for the need to complain We regret to inform you Simply begin: P32, which we received yesterday.
The ieenguage of rnplaieds Emotional terms like disgusted, infuriated, or amazed have no place in business. You can express dissatisfaction by saying: Do not be rude or personal. In most cases correspondence between companies takes place between employees in various departments.
Nothing is gained by being rude to the individual you are writing to. You may antagonize someone who has probably had nothing to do with the error and, rather than getting it corrected, he or she could become defensive and difficult to deal with. Therefore, do not use sentences like: We told you to deduct discount from net prices, not CIF prices.
Discount is deducted from net prices, not CIF prices. Do not use words like fault your fault, our fault or blame you are to blame — these expressions are rude and childish.
Do not write: It is probably the fault of your despatch department. Instead, write: Never blame your own staff, and finally, while writing the complaint remember that your supplier will almost certainly want to help you and correct the mistake.
Suppliers are not in business to irritate or confuse their customers but to offer thema service. Explaining the prroblem If you think you know how the mistake was made, you may politely point this out to your supplier. Sometimes, when a mistake occurs several times, you may be able to work out why it is happening more quickly than the company you are dealing with. My name and address are C. Schwartz, Bergstr. But there is a C. My account number is , but they have been sending me statements coded I would appreciate your looking into this.
Suggesting a solution If you think you know how the mistake can be corrected, let your supplier know. Business Communication Today. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Google Scholar Canale, M.
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This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Preview Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. References Ashley, A. Oxford Handbook of Commercial Correspondence. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar Askehave, I. Digital genres: a Challenge to Traditional Genre Theory. Ed The handbook of business discourse. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Google Scholar Baron, N. London: Routledge. Google Scholar Bhatia, V. Interdiscursivity in Business Letters.
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